Rabu, 05 November 2008

Most of bali ethnic groups live in the south east nusa which is called Bali Island. Bali ethnic groups is a group of people bounded by the unity of culture, and strengthened by the similarity of language. Balinese culture is influenced by Hindus religion from india and from java. Balinese influenced by hindu from java is called Bali-majapahit. This group is the biggest and generally stay in lowland area. The origins of Balinese who called Bali Aga believers live in upland area or mountain. This group didn’t influence by Hindu’s Java culture. They had their own cultural structures. The minority of Balinese people who embrace in Islam relegion called Bali Salam. They are generally live in hinterland area.
Balinese people who embrace in Hindu pray in one God. But they have Trimurty concept. It has three sheaps. They are Brahmana, Wisnu, and Sywa. Brahmana is called by the Creator God, Wisnu is a Guardian God and Syiwa is called by the destroying God. They also believed that a soul will be lived eternally (atman), the result of all actions will always exist (karmapala), the birth will back in the soul (purnarbawa), the freedom of soul (moksa). Their book called Weda. A place for Hindu praying in Bali called “pure”(temple). There is a pure for common people, that’s Besakih pure and there is a pure for certain group.
In Bali, there are five ceremonies. Most of them according to Calender Enumeration concept. They are:
1. Yadnya human ceremony held when the children life will be grown up and become adult;
2. Pitra yadnya ceremony held to show a soul of the forefathers existing and respect them. It begun from the death untill purification of forefather’s soul;
3. Yadnya God ceremony held based on the ceremony of common temple and family temple that people who live around there;
4. Resi yadnya ceremony is a ceremony which held for praising God of Hindu or Buddhist priest;
5. Buta yadnya ceremony is a ceremony which held for Kala and Buta sacrifice (Distroying God)
A person who leads a ceremony usually called “Sulinggih”(priest). Sulinggih from Brahmana caste called Pedanda, and from Kesatria caste called Resi. The temple and common altar ( a place of sacrifice) like kuil desa (village temple), kuil banjar (banjar temple), kuil subak (subak temple), and other. They usually took care by official relegion that called “pemangku.” Most of Balinese in Bali are Hindu. It is about 90%. There are 5% for Buddhist, 5% for Cristian, 5% for Islam and 5% for other. Although most of them are Hindu, they can respect each others. They also live in harmony and cooperative. The relegion spreads properly. So, there are many education institute relegion buildings built there. They are very loyal and obey the traditional custom rules. They keep the norms and attitudes because they respect the traditional custom which still be valid.
The language in Bali can be translated into Indonesia language or other language. Everyday Balinese speak Bali language as their own language. However, according to relegion philosophical system, actually language of Bali has been written in Sansekerta language which usually learned by old people or adult. In the Hindu book writing, sansekerta language has written in palawa letters in which they have been written in the other way around.

Map of Bali

The society in Bali is really famous with some kinds of their cultures. For example:dancings, statue arts, wood carving, building art and decoration, etc. So that there are many tourists who visited it. Their culture element has a firmly connection with relegion grades.
Bali Island is a province that consist of eight Regency and one Praja Municipality. Those regency are:
1. Jembrana regency has the capital city in Negara;
2. Buleleng regency has the capital city in Singaraja;
3. Karang Asem regency has the capital city in Amlapura;
4. Klungkung regency has the capital city in Semarapura;
5. Gianyar regency has the capital city in Gianyar;
6. Badung regency has the capital city in Denpasar;
7. Bangli regency has the capital city in Bangli;
8. Tabanan regency has the capital city in Tabanan.
There was one Praja Municipality which is opened in Denpasar, 1992. Bali also called “pulau seribu pura”(the island which has thousand of temples). In Bali, there are more thousand of temples that built there. In 2003, the total population in Bali is about 3.500.000 million. Most of people in Bali are farmers. There are also civil servant, Army, police man or woman, sailor, entrepreneur, and so on.
In Bali, we can find four harbours. They are
1. Benoa harbour which is located in Badung regency;
2. Pabean harbour which is located in Buleleng regency;
3. Gilimanuk harbour which is located in Jembrana regency;
4. Padang Bae harbour which is located in Karang Asem regency.
There are four lakes in Bali. They are:
1. Batur Lake which is located in Bangli regency
2. Beratan Lake which is located in Tabanan regency;
3. Tamlingan Lake which is located in Buleleng regency;
4. Buyang Lake which is located in Buleleng regency.
Besides, we can also visit the other tourism places, such as Kuta and Sanur Beach, Kintamani, Bedugul, Alas Kedaton, and other.

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